The high-resolution FIbre-fed Echelle Spectrograph (FIES)
FIES is a cross-dispersed high-resolution echelle spectrograph with
a maximum spectral resolution of R = 67000. The entire spectral range
370-830 nm is covered without gaps in a single, fixed setting.
Extended coverage up to 910 nm is available with minor inter-order
wavelength gaps. To isolate it from sources of thermal and mechanical
instability, FIES is mounted in a heavily insulated building separate
from and adjacent to the NOT dome.
The optical fibres that connect the telescope with the spectrograph
are permanently mounted with a movable 45-degree mirror near the focal
plane of the telescope. The fibres run from the instrument adapter
through the telescope and azimuth axis to the spectrograph
enclosure. Being a permanently mounted instrument, FIES can be used at
any time, also for short periods of time while other instruments are
The currently installed octagonal-fiber bundle D contains a
high-res 1.3 arcsec fibre offering a spectral resolution of R=67000.
This bundle also provides two 1.3 arcsec fibres giving R=46000
(med-res), and a fibre with a larger entrance aperture of 2.5 arcsec
but a lower spectral resolution (R=25000, low-res).
An exposure meter is available to predict the S/N of an ongoing
exposure, allowing to optimise the exposure time.
A recent (2014) paper describing FIES can be found
Questions about FIES should be directed to the instrument specialist,
Advantages and drawbacks
The particular advantages of FIES compared to
other high-resolution spectrographs are:
The main drawback of FIES is the low UV sensitivity, due to
unavoidable Rayleigh scattering losses in the long fibre. At 400nm the
sensitivity is about one third of the peak in the VR range.
- A high degree of mechanical and thermal stability which allows
good precision in radial-velocity determinations.
- The freedom to schedule observations with FIES independently of
the instrumentation mounted at the main focus, and thus to follow
variable objects with periods of the order of weeks without blocking
the telescope for other programmes in the meantime.
long-slit spectroscopy is, of course, not possible.
FIES comes with dedicated reduction software (FIEStool), which
provides a fully reduced spectrum for (quick-look) analysis after the
end of each exposure, using the most recent library calibrations. The
same software is also available to observers for final analysis of the
data using the nightly calibration frames.